What is green sand casting, what does the process entail, and why would you select it for your application?


Green sand casting, also known as green sand molding, is a popular, economical, environmentally friendly, and widely-used process for producing simple and complex metal parts, particularly for small to medium-sized casting applications. Due to its consistent, repeatable nature, green sand casting has been utilized as a casting resource for several hundred years.


Green sand refers to the fact that the process is entirely recyclable and the sand contains no chemical additives. The process of green sand casting or molding involves using a mixture of mined Olivine sand, Bentonite clay, and water, which is tightly packed into a flask or molding box that creates a “frame” to hold the sand against the pattern. The sand mixture is damp, not baked, fired, or chemically bonded, which makes it malleable and easy to mold. Once the sand is packed against the pattern, the mold is removed from the pattern to create a cavity in the desired part's shape. Molten metal is then poured into this cavity. When the metal cools and solidifies, the sand mold is broken apart to remove the casting. The sand is collected to be used again for future castings.


Green sand casting typically involves the following steps:

  1. Pattern/Corebox Making: The first step in green sand casting is to create a pattern that defines the shape of the final metal part. The pattern, or corebox, is made from either wood, plastic, or metal and is used to create a sand mold. Coreboxes create sand cores which create undercuts or hollow features in the casting geometry.
  2. Sand Preparation: Sand is prepared by mixing it with a small amount of clay and water to create a moist, pliable mixture that can be packed against the pattern.
  3. Molding: The sand is packed against the pattern in a molding box or flask, which is typically made of wood or metal. The pattern is then removed, leaving behind a cavity in the sand that is the shape of the final metal part.
  4. Pouring: Molten metal is then poured into the sand mold through a runner system, which is a channel that connects the mold cavity to the outside of the mold. The metal is typically poured at a temperature between 1200-1400 degrees Fahrenheit.
  5. Solidification: Once the metal is poured into the mold, it cools and solidifies. The cooling rate of the metal can be controlled by runners, gating, risers, filters, and with the addition of chills (as needed), which are pieces of metal placed in the mold to conduct heat away from specific regions of the casting.
  6. Shakeout: After the metal has solidified, the sand mold is broken to release the casting. This is done by either manually breaking the mold or using a machine to vibrate the mold and shake the sand loose from the casting.
  7. Finishing: The final step is to remove any excess material, such as gating or risers, and to clean up the surface of the casting. This is typically done using files, grinding tools, or sandblasting equipment. The casting is then ready for use or further processing.


Green sand casting has several advantages, including its low cost, ability to produce complex shapes with good dimensional accuracy, and more. It is used to make various metal parts, including pump housings, medical device bases, handles, enclosures, gearboxes, and many other components for industrial and consumer products.


Green sand casting is a popular choice for producing metal parts for several reasons (but are not limited to):

  • Low cost: Green sand casting is relatively inexpensive compared to other casting methods, such as investment casting or air-set (no-bake) sand casting.
  • Versatility: Green sand casting is a highly versatile process that can be used to create complex shapes with good dimensional accuracy. It is an excellent method for both low and medium-volume production.
  • Affordable tooling: Green sand casting tooling is affordable and can accommodate design iterations easily and quickly.
  • Environmentally friendly: The sand used in the process is recyclable, creating no waste.
  • Good surface finish: Green sand casting utilizes ultra-fine grain Olivine sand and thus produces castings with a good surface finish. General Foundry’s green sand process produces an industry-leading 125-150 RMS finish.


The green sand casting process is economical and efficient, allowing aluminum and zinc-aluminum to be poured into a near-net shape. It can produce various metal parts, from small to large and from simple to complex shapes. It is utilized in just about every major industry, including medical, biotech, robotics, networking, homeland security and defense, semiconductor, telecom, and many more. Some of the most common products made using green sand casting include (but are not limited to):

  • Robotic arm components: Green sand casting is also frequently used to produce features which may require precise machining and sealing surfaces.
  • Medical device bases: Green sand casting can be used to produce heavy bases which require strength and durability to handle heavy loads.
  • Agricultural equipment: Many parts for this industry are produced using green sand casting, including plowshares, cultivator shanks, and other tillage implements.
  • And so much more.


Overall, green sand casting is a cost-effective, versatile process ideal for producing a wide range of metal parts with simple or complex shapes. Fine grain Olivine sand produces good surface finish castings for various industries.


How can General Foundry Service help you?

General Foundry Service’s proprietary sand, water, and clay blend is ideal for industry-leading sand casting tolerances and surface finish. As a base for our green sand, we utilize extremely fine-grained Olivine sand mined from the Pacific Northwest. We can produce repeatable and aesthetically pleasing sand castings in as little as 6-8 weeks.


General Foundry Service offers true one-stop shopping. With our in-house pattern shop, machine shop, and five complementary casting processes we specialize in machined, Class A cosmetically coated aluminum castings to a Class A finish.


Contact us today for more information regarding our economical green sand casting processes, affordable clean metal casting solutions, or to get started on your next project.